Can someone else consent to a search of my property?

This is one of those "it depends on the circumstances" questions. The Supreme Court has ruled that any occupant of a residence can refuse consent, even if other occupants agree to a search. Unfortunately, you must be present in order to assert your refusal. For this reason, it's important to make sure that anyone with whom you live understands their 4th Amendment rights in case something happens when you're not around. You may want to talk to your roommates and/or family members about how to respond to police visits and reach an agreement as to how best to handle such a situation.

As a general rule, police can obtain consent to search from anyone with control over the property. Someone who has a key, or whose name appears on the lease, can legally consent to a search of the property if no one else is present, or if no one else objects. If you rent the property, be advised that your landlord can also let the police in.

Finally, keep in mind that the courts often determine your "expectation of privacy" on a case-by-case basis. Keeping your room locked and maintaining control of your personal space can help protect you if someone else ever lets police in. If your room is off-limits to other occupants of the property, courts will often rule that it is off-limits to police as well.