I was asked to come to the police station regarding an incident. I went, answered their questions and then left. Will this show up on my record as an arrest?

No. Charges were not filed and you were not booked. However, if, at a later date, the police determine that there is cause to file charges, you could still be arrested.

Also, some police departments keep records of police-citizen encounters. It is possible that the encounter will be noted and appear if someone from the same department were to access your information at a later date, but that is separate from your criminal record.